Have you ever wondered how the blood circulating in your body manages to communicate with body tissues to facilitate the exchanges necessary for healing wounds, fighting bacteria, or growing muscles?
Peptides are part of the essential building blocks of life, microscopic molecules entailing two or more linked amino acids. Peptides are vital for research in medical and pharmaceutical fields, with growing demand in neuroscience, cancer therapies, immunology studies, drug delivery systems, and tissue repair.
This comprehensive beginners’ guide will delve into peptides, defining terms and discussing structural components, types, applications, synthesis, chemistry, and future trends. We’ll also touch on the importance of peptides in research and pharmaceuticals, further emphasizing their relevance in diverse industries.
We’ll also offer examples by spotlighting Advanced Chemtech’s products, which are essential for peptide synthesis.
What Is a Peptide?
A peptide is a tiny organic molecule consisting of two or more amino acids that link together in a linear sequence. A peptide is usually shorter than a protein containing 100-1000s of amino acids. On the other hand, proteins can essentially be considered as very large peptides. Peptides are naturally occurring, but some are artificially manipulated in laboratories for industrial application.
What Is the Structure of a Peptide?
In terms of structure, the major components of a peptide are the backbone (scholars call them the amide bonds) and the side chains that protrude from this backbone.
Each side chain contains an alpha-amino group connected to a carboxyl functional group consisting of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms.
The amide bonds are the chemical linkages between side chains that form a chain of amino acids. So, peptides are polymers of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Peptide bonds are covalent bonds that form during the reaction of a carboxyl group within an amino acid and the alpha-amino group of another amino acid. As a result, it releases a water molecule, forming an amide bond and linking two amino acids.
The bonding process makes peptides unique, as they can form cyclic structures. So, they’re ideal for drug discovery and medicinal chemistry. As we shall discuss later, lab researchers can manipulate various peptides to create unique peptides that offer a targeted host of qualities.
What Are The Different Types of Peptides?
Peptides come in different shapes and sizes, so scientists classify peptides according to their number of amino acids. They can vary in length, structure, and function. The following are the different types of peptides.
These are short amino acid chains, typically containing fewer than 20 amino acid residues. They are often intermediates in synthesizing larger peptides and proteins.
They’re longer chains of amino acids, typically consisting of 20 to 50 amino acid residues. They serve as precursors to proteins and can have specific biological functions.
Proteins are extensive molecules entailing one or more polypeptide chains, each with a specific sequence of amino acids. Proteins are essential for numerous biological functions and serve as enzymes, structural components, transporters, receptors, and more.
The Crucial Roles That Peptides Play
Peptides involve various biological functions, including enzymatic reactions, immune responses, and cellular signaling pathways. They can act as messengers, transmitting information within the body.
Unlike steroids, signaling peptides, or peptide hormones, regulate various physiological processes by binding to specific receptors on target cells. Examples include insulin, which regulates blood glucose levels, and glucagon, which increases blood sugar levels.
Peptide hormones are vital regulators of bodily functions. For example, the peptide hormone oxytocin is involved in uterine contractions during childbirth and social bonding, while the growth hormone regulates growth and metabolism.
Well-Known Peptides and Their Functions in the Human Body
Produced by the pancreas, insulin regulates glucose metabolism, facilitating cells to uptake glucose and lowering blood sugar levels.
Often called the “love hormone,” oxytocin is involved in social bonding, maternal behaviors, and uterine contractions during labor.
This hormone, also produced by the pancreas, stimulates the liver, releasing glucose into the bloodstream, ultimately raising blood sugar levels.
Peptides in Research and Medicine
Pharmaceutical researchers and drug designers are happy with peptides for sure. Why?
- Pharmaceutical Research: Peptides are essential tools for studying the functions of proteins and their interactions. They help researchers understand disease mechanisms and develop new therapeutic strategies.
- Drug Design: Peptide-based drugs have gained attention due to their high specificity and low toxicity. They can target specific proteins involved in diseases, offering potential treatments for cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.
Moreover, peptide-based drugs have several potential therapeutic applications:
- Cancer Therapy: Peptide-based drugs can target cancer-specific proteins, inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis.
- Diabetes Treatment: Peptide insulin analogs can improve blood glucose control in diabetic patients.
- Immunotherapy: Peptide-based vaccines and immunotherapies are being developed to target infectious diseases and cancer.
Advanced ChemTech’s products, such as protected amino acids, are crucial in peptide synthesis. It enables the synthesis of intricate peptides and peptide-based drugs with utmost precision and complexity.
Peptide Synthesis and Chemistry
Peptide synthesis is a complex process requiring specialized reagents and equipment for optimal results. It entails creating peptides by chemically joining amino acids. There are three primary methods:
- Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS): SPPS entails attaching the growing peptide chain to a solid support (resin) and synthesizing one amino acid at a time. Protecting groups help to selectively react with specific amino acids, ensuring precise sequence control.
- Solution-Phase Peptide Synthesis: This method involves the synthesis of peptides in solution. While it’s less commonly used than SPPS, it can benefit specific applications.
- Stapling Peptide Synthesis: This method helps to bind a peptide with an additional chemical component, such as a fluorophore. It can be used to improve peptide stability, specificity, and solubility.
The essential chemical reactions in peptide synthesis are:
- Coupling Reactions: These reactions involve forming a peptide bond linking the carboxyl group and the amino group of two amino acids. Coupling reagents, such as HATU and DIC, are typically used to facilitate this reaction.
- Deprotection Reactions: These involve removing protecting groups from amino acids at specific locations on the peptide chain.
- Activation Reactions: These involve activating the amino acids for coupling reaction using specific ‘activating agents’, such as DCC or EDC.
Natural vs. Unusual Amino Acids
Most peptides comprise natural amino acids, which include 20 varieties encoded by the genetic code. In contrast, unusual amino acids have been developed for various applications and directly integrated into peptides or using chemical modifications.
The perks of using unusual amino acids include the ability to introduce multiple functionalities in peptides, which leads to improved stability and novel properties. Some common examples of unusual amino acids are:
- P-nitrobenzoyl derivatives.
- Fluorinated residues.
- Unnatural alkylamino acids.
More recently, researchers have successfully incorporated genetically encoded fluorescent amino acids into peptides, opening up various possibilities for in vivo applications.
Peptide synthesis is a powerful technique that enables researchers and pharmaceutical companies to create new therapeutic peptides. By using unusual amino acids, it’s possible to introduce chemical modifications in peptides for improved stability or novel properties.
The difference between steroids and peptides also matters when designing peptides for various applications. The healing peptides and injury repair peptides are both making their mark in the medical field due to their potential therapeutic effects.
With continued research investments, peptide synthesis could soon revolutionize the way we improve medicines and treatments for various diseases. At Advanced Chemtech, we offer a wide range of services related to peptide synthesis and analysis. Contact us today for more information!